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  • Processes for Upgrading Metallurgical Grade Silicon to ...

    Ji-Jun W, Wen-hui M, Bin Y, Yong-nian D, Morita K. Boron removal from metallurgical grade silicon by oxidizing refining. Trans. Nonferrous Met. China 2009; 19: 463.467. [32] Alemany C, Trassy C, Pateyron B, Li KI, Delannoy Y. Refining of metallurgical-grade silicon by inductive plasma. Solar Energy Materials Solar Cells 2002; 72: 21-48. [33]

  • Cited by: 105
  • vacuum distillation refining of metallurgical grade silicon

    PETROLEUM REFINING THERMAL PROCESSES Dr Vacuum distillation: Low pressure conversion of heavy low grade oil to lighter products (mainly gasoline related). Get Price ; US6117208A salt process for producing . where it is removed and the titanium separated from the zinc by vacuum distillation or a and refining of of metallurgical grade silicon ...

  • Vacuum Refining of Molten Silicon SpringerLink

    Sep 26, 2012  Metallurgical fundamentals for vacuum refining of molten silicon and the behavior of different impurities in this process are studied. A novel mass transfer model for the removal of volatile impurities from silicon in vacuum induction refining is developed. The boundary conditions for vacuum refining system—the equilibrium partial pressures of the dissolved elements and their actual partial ...

  • Cited by: 100
  • Refining Silicon PVEducation

    Electronic Grade Silicon. A small amount of the metallurgical grade silicon is further refined for the semiconductor industry. Powdered MG-Si is reacted with anhydrous HCl at 300 °C in a fluidized bed reactor to form SiHCl 3. Si + 3HCl → SiHCl 3 + H 2. During this reaction impurities such as Fe, Al, and B react to form their halides (e.g ...

  • Vacuum distillation refining of metallurgical grade ...

    【摘要】:The kinetics on vacuum refining process of metallurgical grade silicon was studied using maximum evaporation rate,critical pressure and mean free path of phosphorus in the metallurgical grade silicon at different temperatures.The behaviors of impurity phosphorus in the vacuum distillation process were examined in detail. The results show that the fractional vacuum distillation ...

  • Refining Metallurgical Grade Silicon by Chlorination ...

    A supply shortage of solar-grade silicon in recent years resulted from a rapid expansion of the solar cell industry. Therefore, many efforts have been done to obtain reliable metallurgical methods for production of SoG silicon from metallurgical grade silicon. In this research, refining of metallurgical grade silicon by chlorination treatment with

  • Phosphorus removal from upgraded metallurgical-grade ...

    The removal of phosphorus impurities is among the most important problems in the purification of upgraded metallurgical-grade silicon (UMG-Si) used in the preparation of solar-grade silicon (SOG-Si). Vacuum refining is considered relatively effective for removing phosphorus from molten silicon.

  • (PDF) Processes for Upgrading Metallurgical Grade Silicon ...

    Vacuum distillation technique for the purification of mo lten metals and alloys has been developed mainly . in the last century. ... especially the refining of metallurgical-grade silicon. In ...

  • Electromagnetic Levitation Refining of Silicon–Iron Alloys ...

    Vacuum distillation refining of metallurgical grade silicon (I)—Thermodynamics on removal of phosphorus from metallurgical grade silicon. Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China, 17, 1022–1025. CrossRef Google Scholar. 12. Khajavi, L. T., Barati, M. (2012). Thermodynamics of phosphorus removal from silicon in solvent refining ...

  • Removal of Phosphorus from Silicon Melts by Vacuum Refining

    silicon melts. This work is of interest for the production of solar-grade silicon since phosphorus is hard to remove from silicon and is an important impurity in solar cells. The primary objective of the testwork was to study the effect of iron on phosphorus removal from silicon via induction vacuum refining.

  • Development of solar grade silicon refining via ...

    As a new promising route for solar grade silicon (SOG-Si) production, metallurgical refining processes was developed in the early eighties of the last century, followed by the establishment of NEDO-JFE process in the beginning of the 2000s, where P was removed by electron beam (EB) in vacuum conditions and B by Ar-H2O plasma.

  • Electromagnetic Levitation Refining of Silicon–Iron Alloys ...

    Vacuum distillation refining of metallurgical grade silicon (I)—Thermodynamics on removal of phosphorus from metallurgical grade silicon. Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China, 17, 1022–1025. CrossRef Google Scholar. 12. Khajavi, L. T., Barati, M. (2012). Thermodynamics of phosphorus removal from silicon in solvent refining ...

  • Removal of Phosphorus from Silicon Melts by Vacuum

    silicon melts. This work is of interest for the production of solar-grade silicon since phosphorus is hard to remove from silicon and is an important impurity in solar cells. The primary objective of the testwork was to study the effect of iron on phosphorus removal from silicon via induction vacuum refining.

  • Refining Silicon PVEducation

    The impurity levels in metallurgical grade silicon5 vary widely due to process variation and the source raw materials of silica and carbon. Electronic Grade Silicon. A small amount of the metallurgical grade silicon is further refined for the semiconductor industry. Powdered MG-Si is reacted with anhydrous HCl at 300 °C in a fluidized bed ...

  • The 18th International Vacuum Conference (IVC-18)

    Vacuum distillation as an effective purification method has been used in the preparation of high-purity bismuth [14] and the refining of the metallurgical grade silicon [15,16], etc. But the purification of crude nickel by vacuum distillation has not been reported. In this paper the purification of crude nickel by vacuum distillation was studied.

  • Petroleum refining - Vacuum distillation Britannica

    Petroleum refining - Petroleum refining - Vacuum distillation: The principles of vacuum distillation resemble those of fractional distillation (commonly called atmospheric distillation to distinguish it from the vacuum method), except that larger-diameter columns are used to maintain comparable vapour velocities at reduced operating pressures. A vacuum of 50 to 100 mm of mercury absolute is ...

  • Vacuum distillation - Wikipedia

    Vacuum distillation is distillation performed under reduced pressure, which allows the purification of compounds not readily distilled at ambient pressures or simply to save time or energy. This technique separates compounds based on differences in boiling points. This technique is used when the boiling point of the desired compound is difficult to achieve or will cause the compound to decompose.

  • 真空熔炼1_百度文库

    真空熔炼1 - Vacuum distillation refining of metallurgical grade silicon (Ⅰ) ——Thermodynamics on remov...

  • 26th European Photovoltaic Solar energy conference and ...

    Keywords: Impurities, metallurgical grade, silicon, vacuum, refining . 1 INTRODUCTION . Vacuum distillation technique for the purification of molten metals and alloys has been developed mainly in the last century. This technique can be used to remove for

  • Refining and Recycling of Silicon: A Review

    of metallurgical grade silicon, also called silicon metal in the industry because of its appearance and not because of its physical properties, are produced and sold in the world market.

  • Processes for Upgrading Metallurgical Grade Silicon to ...

    Metallurgical grade silicon (MG-Si) is the initial material to produce pure silicon for photovoltaic and ... distillation and deposition of silicon [2, 3]. Trichlorosilan (SiHCl ... vacuum refining and directional solidification to produce SoG-Si [6]. In the NS Solar Material (NSSM) process in Japan, MG-Si is first refined by oxidation for B

  • Cheaper Silicon for Photovoltaics: Siemens Process vs ...

    Jun 27, 2018  Producing Metallurgical Grade Silicon. In most cases, the silicon used for solar cells is derived from metallurgical grade silicon. This metallurgical grade silicon is produced by reducing silica from quartz sand with carbon: SiO2(l)+2C(s)=Si(l)+2CO(g). Next, carbon electrodes are often used in a furnace to create temperatures of around 2000°C, so that many impurities become volatile.

  • Wafer, Si-Wafer, Silicon, Offer, Request, Production

    Metallurgical-Grade Silicon Production Quartz sand is reduced with carbon in an electric arc furnace at temperatures > 1900°C to metallurgical grade silicon (> 98 % pure). The major part of the world production (2008: approx. 6 million tons) is used for manufacturing alloys with aluminium and steel, and as raw material for polysiloxane production.

  • Dephosphorization of Levitated Silicon-Iron Droplets for ...

    The availability, quality and cost of silicon feedstock are29 of paramount importance for growth of 30 the photovoltaic sector within the global energy mix. 31 The upgrading of inexpensive silicon-iron alloys or metallurgical grade silicon is a potentially 32 economical refining route in order to generate solar-grade silicon. Numerous ...

  • Petroleum refining - Vacuum distillation Britannica

    Petroleum refining - Petroleum refining - Vacuum distillation: The principles of vacuum distillation resemble those of fractional distillation (commonly called atmospheric distillation to distinguish it from the vacuum method), except that larger-diameter columns are used to maintain comparable vapour velocities at reduced operating pressures. A vacuum of 50 to 100 mm of mercury absolute is ...

  • production of slag for silicon refining molten sog solar,

    Production of Solar Grade (SoG) Silicon by Refining Liquid ... Aug 06, 2001 @article{osti_786367, title = {Production of Solar Grade (SoG) Silicon by Refining Liquid Metallurgical Grade (MG) Silicon: Final Report, 19 April 2001}, author = {Khattak, C P and Joyce, D B and Schmid, F}, abstractNote = {This report summarizes the results of the developed technology for producing SoG silicon by ...

  • Processes for Upgrading Metallurgical Grade Silicon to ...

    Metallurgical grade silicon (MG-Si) is the initial material to produce pure silicon for photovoltaic and ... distillation and deposition of silicon [2, 3]. Trichlorosilan (SiHCl ... vacuum refining and directional solidification to produce SoG-Si [6]. In the NS Solar Material (NSSM) process in Japan, MG-Si is first refined by oxidation for B

  • Dephosphorization of Levitated Silicon-Iron Droplets for ...

    The availability, quality and cost of silicon feedstock are29 of paramount importance for growth of 30 the photovoltaic sector within the global energy mix. 31 The upgrading of inexpensive silicon-iron alloys or metallurgical grade silicon is a potentially 32 economical refining route in order to generate solar-grade silicon. Numerous ...

  • 26th European Photovoltaic Solar energy conference and ...

    Keywords: Impurities, metallurgical grade, silicon, vacuum, refining . 1 INTRODUCTION . Vacuum distillation technique for the purification of molten metals and alloys has been developed mainly in the last century. This technique can be used to remove for

  • Application of Electron Beam Melting to the Removal of ...

    Removal methods of impurity from metallurgical-grade silicon (Si) are intensively studied to produce solar-grade silicon (SoG-Si) with a smaller economical load and lower cost. Removal of phosphorus (P) has been an important issue because of difficulties in application of conventional metallurgical methods such as solidification refining. Because P evaporates preferentially from molten Si due ...

  • Cheaper Silicon for Photovoltaics: Siemens Process vs ...

    Jun 27, 2018  Producing Metallurgical Grade Silicon. In most cases, the silicon used for solar cells is derived from metallurgical grade silicon. This metallurgical grade silicon is produced by reducing silica from quartz sand with carbon: SiO2(l)+2C(s)=Si(l)+2CO(g). Next, carbon electrodes are often used in a furnace to create temperatures of around 2000°C, so that many impurities become volatile.

  • Silicon wafers, silicon wafer processing and related ...

    In zone melting, also called zone refining, the first silicon purification method to be widely used industrially, rods of metallurgical grade silicon are heated to melt at one end. Then, the heater is slowly moved down the length of the rod, keeping a small length of the rod molten as the silicon cools and re-solidifies behind it.

  • Silicon Substrate Preparation-Czochralski Crystal Growth ...

    The process starts by the production of Metallurgical Grade Silicon (MGS) by charging it with quartzite and carbon in an arc furnace. Quartzite is a relatively pure form of sand (SiQ2), and carbon is obtained in the form of coal, coke, and wood chips. The overall reaction

  • 昆明理工大学冶能学院

    Vacuum distillation refining of metallurgical grade silicon (II) - Kinetics on removal of phosphorus from metallurgical grade silicon.Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China, 2007, 17: s1026-s1029. E-mail : [email protected]

  • Vacuum distillation chemical process Britannica

    fire refining. In tin processing: Refining. Vacuum distillation is sometimes used in fire refining. In this process, molten tin is heated in a dense graphite vessel at high temperatures (1,100 to 1,300 °C, or 2,000 to 2,375 °F). A vacuum is applied, and impurities are removed by selective distillation at their Read More; petroleum refining

  • Production of Solar Grade (SoG) Silicon by Refining Liquid ...

    Production of Solar Grade (SoG) Silicon by Refining Liquid Metallurgical Grade (MG) Silicon ABSTRACT Pyro-metallurgical refining techniques are being developed for use with molten metallurgical grade (MG) silicon so that directionally solidified refined MG silicon can be used as solar grade (SoG) silicon feedstock for photovoltaic applications.

  • Filtration and Purification Solutions for the Total ...

    refining quartz or sand into metallurgical grade silicon, which is then purified in a series of chemical reactions. Next, during the Müller Rochow process, purified metallurgical grade silicon reacts with hydrogen chloride at elevated temperatures in the presence of a catalyst, to produce trichlorosilane (TCS). The TCS gas is cooled and liquified.

  • Refining of Metals: Distillation, Zone Refining ...

    Refining of Metals. In metallurgy refining of metals is the final process. Once the extraction process is complete we must ensure that the metal is free of any impurities. If you remember we have done a similar process before of removing impurities during concentration of ores.

  • pilot plant to produce sog silicon

    Production of Solar Grade (SoG) Silicon by Refining Liquid ... 2013-8-9 Production of Solar Grade (SoG) Silicon by Refining Liquid Metallurgical Grade (MG) Silicon Annual Report June 10 1998 October 19, 1999 National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard Golden, Colorado 80401-3393 NREL is a U.S. Department of Energy Laboratory Operated by Midwest Research Institute •

  • Filtration and Purification Solutions for the Total ...

    refining quartz or sand into metallurgical grade silicon, which is then purified in a series of chemical reactions. Next, during the Müller Rochow process, purified metallurgical grade silicon reacts with hydrogen chloride at elevated temperatures in the presence of a catalyst, to produce trichlorosilane (TCS). The TCS gas is cooled and liquified.

  • Production of High Purity Metals: A Review on Zone ...

    Further refinement (e.g. > 4N- or 5N-purity) will be only achieved in combination with other methods, such as vacuum distillation as well as zone refining [5] . However, vacuum distillation can be only applied in systems with significant vapor pressure difference of the base metal in comparison to that of its impurities (e.g. Mg, Zn, Mn, etc.).

  • VALDINEY DOMINGOS DE OLIVEIRA – Senior Technical Sales ...

    Effectively implemented the Södeberg Al Casing for Metallurgical Silicon producers. Automation of refining process in Silicon production (substituting the liquid N2 + O2 for dry filtered Compressed Air + O2). Efficiently developed some tests of UMG for Solar Grade Silicon.

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  • aluminum oxide grit to mesh conversion

    50lbs.Aluminum Oxide Blast Media 90 Grit . About Aluminum Oxide Blast Media 90 Grit . Long lasting rust removing media is best used to clean light rust from thin metal parts, but also removes rust from cast iron parts like exhaust manifolds and water pumps.

  • Application of the Molecular Interaction Volume Model ...

    The thermodynamic properties of multiple liquid alloys with strong negative deviation from ideality were successfully modeled by the molecular interaction volume model (MIVM). The modeled partial Gibbs free energy of calcium in Ca–Ag, Ca–In, Ca–Pb, Ca–Sn, Ca–Tl, and Ca–Zn at 800 °C was within 1.5 kJ/mol of the existing experimental data.

  • CN103184353A - Preparation method of high-purity antimony ...

    The distillation step comprises the processes that: antimony obtained after the lead removing step is crushed and placed in a vacuum distillation furnace for distillation treatment. With the high-purity antimony preparation method provided by the invention, impurities arsenic and lead in raw material antimony can be effectively removed, and ...

  • CN101255598A - Method for preparing solar energy grade ...

    The invention relates to a preparation method for solar-grade polysilicon, silicon ore is chosen according to a rule of concentrated feeding stuff, a multi-level and multi-stage chemical reaction is processed in a refining stage, further purification is processed through a slag making, and then a small content impurity is minutely removed through a method of physical purification, thereby, a ...

  • Removal of impurities from Metallurgical Grade Silicon by ...

    After refining for four times, mass fractions of phosphorus and boron were reduced to 0.46?×?10-6 and 0.21?×?10-6 respectively. For transition metal impurities, Fe, Ti and Mn, removal fractions of those all were more than 95%. Keywords: metallurgical grade silicon, liquation refining, Al

  • Metallurgically Article about metallurgically by The ...

    Processes involving evaporation and condensation (distillation, rectification, vacuum separation, and sublimation) are also very important. Methods for refining steel that are performed outside the furnace have developed, as have vacuum smelting and argon smelting, which have come to be used in the production of chemically reactive metals ...

  • metallurgy grade silicon - abbaziapertutti.it

    Electronic-grade silicon (EGS or EG-Si) or semiconductor-grade silicon (SGS) is a highly-purified version of the metallurgical-grade silicon with extremely low impurities suitable for microelectronic device applications. Electronic-grade silicon is the raw material used for the growth of single-crystal silicon in the manufacturing of silicon ...

  • Black metallurgical silicon for solar energy conversion ...

    Li X, Xiao Y, Bang J H, Lausch D, Meyer S, Miclea P-T, Jung J-Y, Schweizer S L, Lee J-H and Wehrspohn R B 2013 Upgraded silicon nanowires by metal-assisted etching of metallurgical silicon: a new route to nanostructured solar-grade silicon Adv. Mater. 25 3187. Crossref

  • Renew Energy Co., Ltd.

    manufacture Metal Silicon in the Republic of Korea as prelude to its goal: metallurgical refining of Metallic Silicon to produce Solar Grade Metal Silicon. Renew Energy currently manufactures 99.x% Metal Silicon (2N MG-Si) and is projected to sell $14,000,000.00 USD of MG-Si in 2012.

  • Applications - Silicon GAB Neumann GmbH

    At temperatures above 1900 °C (3,450 °F) carbon reduces silicon to silicon metal. Less than 1 to 2% of the metallurgical grade silicon is transformed into high-purity silicon for electronics applications. Manufacturing of high-purity silicon. Trichlorosilane is obtained by reacting anhydrous hydrochloric acid (HCl) with silicon metal powder (Si).